4. 1964: Re-Opening of the Subterranean City
Thought to have been built in the 8th – 7th centuries BC, Enegup or the Kaymakli Underground City was re-opened to tourists in 1964. Until then, the caves had been used by Phrygians, an Indo-European people, during the Arab-Byzantine Wars of 780 – 1180 AD, as protection for Christians from the Mongolian incursions of Timur in the 14th century, and after the rise of the Ottoman Empire, to protect the Turkish Muslim leaders. The tunnels were abandoned in 1923.
3. 2013: The Ghouta Chemical Attack
In 2013, 2 years into the Syrian Civil War, opposition-controlled areas around the capital Damascus, were attacked by rockets filled with sarin. Sarin is a chemical agent that is used as a weapon of mass destruction. It was outlawed in 1997 as death can occur 1 to 10 minutes after inhalation. The lung muscle is paralyzed and the victim is suffocated. Even if a non-lethal dose is inhaled and an antidote is administered, the victim can suffer from permanent brain damage. The attack killed between 281 and 1,729 people, many of the children.